The Pre-Establishment National Treatment Obligation: How Common Is It?

Vrinda Vinayak* Introduction The national treatment obligation in international investment agreements (IIAs) is a double-edged sword – while it may attract foreign investment by guaranteeing equal access to and treatment in the domestic market, it has the potential to limit autonomy and sovereignty of nations in formulating domestic policy, and opens these measures up to… Read More The Pre-Establishment National Treatment Obligation: How Common Is It?

Chinese SOE Investment: An Economic Statecraft

Bashar H. Malkawi* China’s rising economic preeminence has been stunning, firmly ensconcing China as the second most powerful world economy replacing previously second-ranked Japan. In a remarkably short span, less than 15 years, the US economy has experienced a relatively huge decline vis-à-vis China on a nominal GDP basis. China’s remarkable economic juggernaut has been… Read More Chinese SOE Investment: An Economic Statecraft