The Pre-Establishment National Treatment Obligation: How Common Is It?

Vrinda Vinayak* Introduction The national treatment obligation in international investment agreements (IIAs) is a double-edged sword – while it may attract foreign investment by guaranteeing equal access to and treatment in the domestic market, it has the potential to limit autonomy and sovereignty of nations in formulating domestic policy, and opens these measures up to… Read More The Pre-Establishment National Treatment Obligation: How Common Is It?

The Treatment of Investments clause under the Indian Model BIT: Laden with greater certainty, restrictions and/or ambiguity?

Naman Lohiya B.A. LL.B.(Hons.) Batch 2015-2020 Gujarat National Law University Gandhinagar, Gujarat. “No Party shall subject investments made by investors of the other Party to measures which constitute a violation of customary international law through: Denial of justice in any judicial or administrative proceedings; or fundamental breach of due process; or targeted discrimination on manifestly… Read More The Treatment of Investments clause under the Indian Model BIT: Laden with greater certainty, restrictions and/or ambiguity?